First Aid 101

First Aid 101

Facts, history, and how-to of First Aid

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What is First Aid?

First aid is the initial care given by a responder with little equipment to someone who is injured or suddenly becomes ill.

History of First Aid:

One hundred and fifty years ago, a battle in northern Italy sparked an idea that has since changed the world. On 24 June 1859, Henry Dunant, a young Geneva businessman, witnessed horrifying suffering and agony following the battle of Solferino. He mobilized the civilian population, mainly women and girls, to care for the wounded irrespective of their role in the conflict. He secured them with the necessary materials and supplies and helped in the establishment of temporary hospitals. His book “A memory of Solferino” inspired the establishment of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in 1863. Today, the need for humanitarian action is still as vital as it was in 1859.  (http://www.ifrc.org/en/news-and-media/features/historical-background---first-aid-for-all/ )

What is First Aid Certification?

These courses are designed to give first aid providers the knowledge and skills needed to respond confidently and effectively in an emergency. It is the role of the Instructor to help students identify and overcome the barriers to taking action in an emergency.

Individuals may be taking this course for their own enrichment, or may be taking it as a requirement for work.

The emergency care procedures are based on the most current recommendations published by the International First Aid Science Advisory Board.

The First Aid training program by EMS Safety Services have been reviewed, approved, or meet the guidelines of numerous federal, state and local agencies, organizations and regulatory bodies, including OSHA, CECBEMS, USCG, and state Health, Human Services, and EMS departments.

How Do I Get Certified in First Aid?

To obtain provider certification, students are required to:

  1. Participate in all course activities (lecture, DVD, skills practice, written and skills testing).
  2. Pass the written exam with a score of at least 80%.
  3. Perform all required skills with 100% proficiency.

Instructors may not issue a Course Completion Card to any student who does not meet the criteria.

There are no prerequisites to take a provider training course. There is no age minimum for provider certification. If a student can participate in the course, successfully demonstrate the required skills and pass the written exam, he or she should be issued a Course Completion Card.

Basic First Aid Learning Objectives:

  1. Recognize an emergency and evaluate a scene for safety.
  2. Know when and how to activate EMS and interact with EMS.
  3. Explain the legal issues related to providing first aid.
  4. Describe methods to prevent exposure to bloodborne pathogens, and what to do if you are exposed.
  5. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for a heart attack.
  6. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for a stroke.
  7. Recognize and respond to severe choking in a responsive and unresponsive person.
  8. Understand the scene size-up, initial assessment, and on-going assessment, and how to perform them.
  9. Describe the recovery position and identify when to use it.
  10. Describe when and how to move a victim in an emergency.
  11. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for bleeding and shock.
  12. Recognize the signs of wound infection and how to help prevent it.
  13. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for a head injury.
  14. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for neck and spine injuries.
  15. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for eye injuries.
  16. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for dental emergencies.
  17. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for chest and abdominal wounds.
  18. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for a muscle, bone or joint injury.
  19. Recognize the types and severity of burns, and describe the first aid for burns.
  20. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for a respiratory emergency.
  21. Describe the use of a quick-relief inhaler to treat an asthma attack.
  22. Identify the signs and symptoms of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).
  23. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for a seizure.
  24. Explain how to care for someone who has fainted.
  25. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for diabetic emergencies.
  26. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for poisoning.
  27. Explain when to call the poison control center and when to activate EMS.
  28. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for heat-related emergencies.
  29. Describe the signs, symptoms, and first aid for cold-related emergencies.
  30. Recognize the signs and symptoms of poisonous bites and stings, and describe the first aid for all bites and stings.

First Aid Kit Contents:

Each workplace should have a first aid kit that contains at least the minimum quantities of the items listed below. Supplement each kit with additional supplies and quantities based on the number of people who may use it, the specific hazards of each work site, and federal, state and local regulations.Workplace First Aid Kit

Federal OSHA references ANSI (American National Standards Institute) for first aid kit contents. The list below includes the minimum sizes and quantities required to meet the ANZI/ISEA Z308.1-2009 Standard: Minimum Requirements for Workplace First Aid Kits and Supplies. Larger quantities or sizes are acceptable. Employers with unique or changing needs may need to enhance their first aid kits.

Analgesics in a workplace kit should follow FDA regulations for single dose, tamper-evident packaging with full labeling, and contain no ingredients which could cause drowsiness.

NOTE: For eyewash or shower requirements, refer to ANSI/ISEA Z358.1: American National Standard for Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment.

  • Absorbent Compress (e.g. 5x9” or 8x10”) 32 sq. in. (1)
  • Adhesive Bandage 1 x 3 in. (16)
  • Adhesive Tape 2.5 yd (total) (1 or 2)
  • Antibiotic Treatment 0.14 fl oz. (6)
  • Antiseptic Swab 0.14 fl oz. (10)
  • Antiseptic Wipe 1 x 1 in. (10)
  • Antiseptic Towelette 24 sq. in. 10
  • Bandage Compress (2 in.) 2 x 36 in. (4)
  • Bandage Compress (3 in.) 3 x 60 in. (2)
  • Bandage Compress (4 in.) 4 x 72 in. (1)
  • CPR Barrier (1)
  • Burn Dressing (gel-soaked pad) 4 x 4 in. (1)
  • Burn Treatment 1/32 oz. 6
  • Cold Pack 4 x 5 in. (1)
  • Eye Covering, with means of attachment (2 single or 1 large covering for both eyes) 2.9 sq. in. (2)
  • Eye/Skin Wash 4 fl. oz. total (1)
  • Eye/Skin Wash & Covering, with means of attachment 4 fl. oz. total (1)
  • Hand Sanitizer (water soluble; at least 61% ethyl alcohol) 1/32 oz. (6)
  • Roller Bandage (4 in.) 4 in. x 4 yd. (1)
  • Roller Bandage (2 in.) 2 in. x 4 yd. (2)
  • Sterile pad 3 x 3 in. (4)
  • Triangular Bandage 40 x 40 x 56 in. (1)
  • First Aid Guide (e.g. EMS Safety Basic First Aid Workbook) (1)

First Aid Facts and Statistics:

-More than 1.25 million Americans have a first or recurrent heart attack every year

-70% of the deaths from heart attack occur before the victim reaches the hospital

-Stroke is the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S. There are 800,000 strokes each year in the United States.

-The human body contains an average of 10 pints of blood. Loss of two pints may result in shock, loss of five to six pints usually results in death.

-Shock is a life threatening condition that occurs when the body’s organs and tissues do not receive enough oxygenated blood. The most common cause of shock is severe bleeding.

-There are 12,000-20,000 spinal cord injuries (SCI) in the US; up to 50% will die. Males sustain 80% of SCI and more than 50% of these victims are between 15 and 35 years old.

-There are 700,000 work related eye injuries each year in the United States, 90% are preventable with proper safety eyewear.

-There are about 4,500 fire and burn deaths per year, roughly 20,000 more are injured from fires and burns.

-About 91% of poisonings occur at home

-93% of poisoning deaths are in adults, usually due to drug poisoning.

-Heat related emergencies are usually preventable. 1,500 people die from excessive heat each year in the U.S.

-Dogs bite more than 4.7 million people each year, 2.8 million of those victims are children

The Tools for First Aid

EMS Safety Services offers a wide range of supplies necessary for the safe and effective application of First Aid, including wound care, personal protective equipment, and kits specifically designed for workplace, outdoors and at home. Visit our online store to find the items that best suit your needs:

With practice and more study on material,  I am confident that I will be a good instructor.

- Olivia Bell