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2015 CPR Guidelines

2015 CPR Guidelines

G2015 –
The new CPR guidelines and treatment recommendations were announced on 10/15/15.  These guidelines are formulated by ILCOR (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation) and will be published for use in the United States by the American Heart Association.

The 2015 CPR Guidelines are created by finding a balance between the best scientific recommendations, and the actions that are easiest for the emergency responder to remember and perform correctly. Although specific treatment recommendations are not yet known, we do know that the focus will remain on early response to cardiac arrest, the quality of the CPR delivered, and the use of an AED.

The new CPR guidelines give EMS Safety, the American Heart Association, the American Red Cross, ECSI and the National Safety Council an opportunity to create all new CPR training materials using G2015 treatment recommendations.

G2015 Instructor Kit_2

Summary of G2015 Changes

The 2015 Guidelines were released in October, 2015. Although most techniques stayed the same, there are some substancial changes, especially in First Aid. Here is a summary for you.

Also, bookmark this page for more information on new instructor kits, supplemental pages, EMS Safety Instructor updates, and revised EMS Safety Instructor Kits.

Use of Cell Phones to Activate EMS:

The BLS algorithm has been changed to include the use of a mobile phone to activate EMS without leaving the victim’s side.

Rescue Breaths, Yes:

Rescue breaths are recommended for trained rescuers; maintain the current ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths.

A Continued Emphasis on High Quality Compressions:

Do not lean on the chest between compressions, minimize interruptions to compressions and avoid excessive ventilation.

Compression Rates:

The recommended rate is 100 to 120 compressions per minute (as opposed to ‘at least’ 100 compressions).

Compression Depth:

We may be going too deep. The recommended compression depth is at least 2 inches (5 cm) but not greater than 2.4 inches (6 cm)


the use of Naloxone by trained bystanders to treat suspected opioid overdose may be considered.

Use of Social Media:

It’s reasonable for communities to use social media to summon rescuers who are nearby and are willing and able to bring an AED to the scene and/or provide CPR. 

CPR Feedback Devices:

Use of feedback devices can improve CPR performance during training.

New Chain of Survival for In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (IHCA):

A different chain of survival will be used to prevent and improve outcomes of IHCA. The IHCA Chain of Survival is: Surveillance and protection, recognition and activation of the emergency response system, immediate high-quality CPR, rapid defibrillation, and advanced support and post arrest care.

Team Resuscitation:

Provides a customizable approach for activation of the EMS and cardiac arrest management to better match the rescuers’ clinical setting. Instead of focusing on a single-rescuer algorithm, team resuscitation teaches how to modify the BLS sequence based on the type of arrest, its location and who is nearby.

Rescue Breaths with an Advanced Airway in Place:

There is only one rate once an advanced airway is in place. One breath every six seconds for all ages. Compressions and breaths are performed asynchronously after the placement of an advanced airway.

ITD and Active Compression-Decompression Devices:

ITD alone is not recommended. When combined with an active compression-decompression device, however, survival rates are improved. CPR with IDT and active compression-decompression can be considered where available.

Out-of-Hospital Cooling:

Is not recommended at this time.

Cardiac Arrest and Pregnancy:

Updated recommendations on the relief of aortocaval compression during cardiac arrest in pregnancy include:

  • Manual left uterine displacement if the fundus height is at or above the level of the umbilicus
  • Eliminating use of a lateral tilt (tilting the patient or use of a foam wedge
Use of Cell Phones to Activate EMS:

The BLS algorithm has been changed to include the use of a mobile phone to activate EMS without leaving the victim’s side.

Compression Rates

The recommended rate is 100 to 120 compressions per minute (as opposed to ‘at least’ 100 compressions).

Compression Depth:

For adolescents, a maximum compression depth not greater than 2.4 inches (6 cm) is recommended.

Low Blood Sugar Emergencies:

Glucose tablets are preferred to other forms of sugar for diabetics with mild symptoms of hypoglycemia.

Treatment of Open Chest Wounds:

The use of an occlusive dressing is no longer recommended.


A healthcare provider should evaluate any person with a head injury that resulted in a change to the victim’s level of consciousness or other signs and symptoms of a head injury or concussion.

Avulsed Tooth:

If immediate reimplantation is not possible, certain solutions are suggested to prolong the tooth’s viability: Hanks Balanced Salt Solution, propolis, egg white, coconut water, Ricetral or whole milk.

Recovery Position:

The recommended recovery position is a lateral side-lying position.

Use of Aspirin for Chest Pain

Aspirin is still recommended for a person suspected of having a heart attack as long as the patient has no allergy other contraindications. Either coated or non-coated aspirin is allowed as long as the aspirin is chewed and swallowed. There is no change to recommended dose of 1 adult or 2 baby aspirin.

Repeat Doses for Anaphylaxis:

When a person does not respond to an initial dose of epinephrine and EMS is not expected to arrive within 5 to 10 minutes, consider a repeat dose.

Hemostatic Dressings

May be considered when standard bleeding control measures are not working to treat severe external bleeding.

Application of Cervical Collars by First Aid Responders:

Is not recommended. A first aid provider should have the person remain as still as possible while awaiting EMS.


EMS Safety G2015 Timeline:

October, 2015

Guidelines Announced

Summary of changes available 

December, 2015

Instructor Updates

G2015 Instructor Update webinars begin. Instructors can start teaching 2015 Guidelines after receiving the Instructor Update using optional supplements.

Summer, 2016

G2015 CORE Instructor Kits Available

Updated CORE Instructor Manuals, Videos, and Student Workbooks are released

December, 2016

Ancillary Programs

BLS for Healthcare Providers and Childcare Instructor Kits released


Mandatory Transition

All Instructors must have purchased G2015 INstructor Kits and received the Instructor Update 

With the new CPR guidelines, all Instructors will be required to acquire new curriculum materials and go through an update process.  EMS Safety will be holding webinars that will take approximately 1 hour to complete.  Click here to sign up for a live webinar.

Cost for G2015 Update Kits:

CORE = AED, CPR & First Aid for the Community Rescuer + Bloodborne Pathogens$300Summer, 2016
PRO = BLS for Professional Rescuers and Healthcare Providers$150December, 2016
Childcare = AED, CPR & First Aid for Childcare Providers - CALIFORNIA ONLY $75December, 2016


Send us your suggestions!

Most of our improvements come from the suggestions of our Instructors. If you have requests for certain optional topics, ideas for scenarios, or specific suggestions, email them to We are excited to provide you with compelling, simple, and professional training resources that will make your emergency care training classes smooth and effective.

Frequently Asked Questions

Instructor updates and supplemental materials will be available in December 2015. Once you receive the Instructor Update, you can start using the supplements to teach 2015 guidelines until the updated kits are available.
All instructors will need to transition to the new guidelines (received the update, purchased the G2015 Instructor Kit) by 12/31/16.
EMS Safety is pre-selling the kits at discounted prices. Pre-sales of the Instructor Kit will cost less to purchase than after the Instructor Kit is released. The G2015 Instructor Kits will be released in Summer, 2016.
Instructors will participate in an Instructor Update Webinar. Update webinars will begin in December of 2015. After attending an Instructor Update Webinar and answering a few simple questions about the update, Instructors will be allowed to use the optional supplemental materials to teach the 2015 guidelines in December.
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and International First Aid Science Advisory Board release new guidelines every 5 years based on the latest resuscitation and first aid science. New guidelines will increase the survival of Sudden Cardiac Arrest and reduce morbidity and mortality associated with medical and traumatic emergencies.
Instructors may continue to teach the 2010 Guidelines until 12/31/16.
Yes. All Instructors will need to receive the Instructor Update and obtain 2015 Instructor Kits by the mandatory transition date of 12/31/16.
Each Instructor Kit includes the Instructor Manual(s), course videos and sample student workbooks.
Yes, supplements will be available in December. Instructors will be able to teach the 2015 Guidelines after attending the Instructor Update Webinar and answering a few simple questions about the update.
The core programs will release in late Summer, 2016. The Pro Rescuer and Childcare courses will be available in December, 2016.
Keep using them. 2010 materials will be valid until 12/31/16.
Teach it with your existing 2010 resources. The release of new guidelines does not mean prior guidelines are no longer effective. 2010 resources are valid until 12/31/16.

G2015 Abbreviation Key

If you like to go straight to the source to review the new CPR Guidelines, use this Abbreviation Key to help you.
TermFull Name 
ACSacute coronary syndromes
AEDautomated external defibrillator
AHAAmerican Heart Association
ALSadvanced life support
AMSTARassessment of multiple systematic reviews
AVPUAlert, resonds to Voice, responds to Pain, Unresponsive scale
BATBehavioral Assessment Tool
BLSBasic Life Support
BNPbrain natriuretic peptide
CAGcardiac angiography
CASTestcardiac arrest simulation test
CIconfidence interval
COIconflict of interest
CoSTRInternational Consensus on CPR and ECC Science With Treatment Recommendations
CPAPcontinuous positive airway pressure
CPCCerebral Performance Category
CPRCardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CPSSCincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale
CPTClinical Performance Tool
CTcomputed tomography
cTnTcardiac troponin
DAPdiastolic artery pressure
DBPdiastolic blood pressure
ECCemergency cardiovascular care
ECMOextracorporeal membrane oxygenation
ECPRextracorporeal CPR
EDemergency department
EITeducation, implementation, and teams
EMSemergency medical service
ERCEuropean Resuscitation Council
ETCO ₂end-tidal carbon dioxide
FASTFace, Arm, Speech, Time
FASTERFace, Arm, Speech, Time Emergency Response
FEASTFluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy
FEV1forced expiratory volume over 1 second
FNfalse negative
FPfalse positive
FRCfunctional residual capacity
FVCforced vital capacity
GCSGlasgow Coma Scale
GDTGuideline Development Tool
GRADEGrading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation
HAINESHigh Arm in Endangered Spine
HCPhealthcare provider
ICUintensive care unit
IHCAin-hospital cardiac arrests
ILCORInternational Liaison Committee on Rescuscitation
ILEIntravenous lipid emulsion
INSUREintubation-surfactant-extubation sequence
ITDimpedance threshold device
IVHperiventricular hemorrhage
KPSSKurashiki Prehospital Stroke Scale
LAMSLos Angeles Motor Scale
LAPSSLos Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen
LOELevel of Evidence
LOE B-NRLevel of Evidence B (nonrandomized)
LOE B-RLevel of Evidence B (randomized)
LOE C-EOLevel of Evidence C (expert opinion)
LOE C-LDLevel of Evidence C (limited data)
LOSlength of stay
LVSDleft ventricular support device
MACEmajor adverse cardiac event
MAPmean arterial blood pressure
MASmortality and/or meconium aspiration syndrome
MASSMelbourne Ambulance Stroke Screen
METemergency medical team
MEWSModified Early Warning Score
MPDSMedical Priority Dispatch System
MRImagnetic resonance imaging
NICENational Institute for Health and Care Excellence
NICUneonatal intensive care unit
NSEneuron-specific enolase
OHCAout-of-hospital cardiac arrests
OPSSOntario Prehospital Stroke Scale
ORodds ratio
PADpublic-access defibrillation
Pao ₂partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood
PAPP-Apregnancy-associated plasma protein A
PBSphosphate-buffered saline
PCIpercutaneous coronary intervention
PEEPpositive end-expiratory pressure
PEFRpeak expiratory flow rate
PEWSpediatric early warning scores
PICOpopulation, intervention, comparator, outcome
PICUpediatric intensive care unit
PLRpassive leg raising
PMCDperimortem cesarean delivery
POLSTPhysician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment
PPCIprimary PCI
PPVpositive-pressure ventilation
PSAPpublic service access point
PVHperiventricular hemorrhage
pVTpulseless ventricular tachycardia
QUADASQuality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies
RCTrandomized control trials
ROSCreturn of spontaneous circulation
ROSIERRecognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room
RRrelative risk
RRTrapid response team
SBPsystolic blood pressure
SCATSport Concussion Assessment Tool
SDstandard deviation
SEERSSystematic Evidence Evaluation and Review System
SIGNScottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network
STEMIST-segment elevation myocarial infarction
TFCCtime to first chest compression
TFMstask force members
THAPCATherapuetic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest
TIFthumb and index finger
TIMIThrombolysis in Myocdardial Infarction
TTMtargeted temperature management
UFHunfractionated heparin
VFventricular fibrillation
VLBWvery low birth weight
WHOWorld Health Organization